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National name 
as official short form the today's Federal Republic of Germany, historically the gradually developing and German nation defining by linguistic, cultural and later also political unit (see history of Germany), the states and/or Konfoederationen, which stressed to represent this nation exclusively, i.e.: the holy the Roman realm (German nation) (come out 962 from the east Franconia realm, until 1806), the German federation (1815 to 1871), the German Reich (1871 to 1945), temporally generally divides the German into empire (1871 - 1918), the Weimar Republic (1919 - 1933), the time of the national socialism (1933 - 1945); unofficially approximately since 1938 and officially for less as two years before its surrender "largeGerman realm", the Federal Republic of Germany after the reunification 1990, between the periods the area of the predecessor state and/or the quantity specified above than German calling states, in particular between end of the Second World War 1945 and establishment of the two German states 1949 of the allied ones occupied and in 4 zones the divided area of the German Reich, decreases by the German east areas placed under Polish administration (see zone of occupation, Germany), for the period between 1949 and 1990 in German Democratic Republic and Federal Republic of Germany "divided Germany", colloquially in the Federal Republic of Germany at that time and in the western To foreign country however usually also only the Federal Republic of Germany at that time alone ("Bonn republic"), see history of the Federal Republic of Germany (1945-1990),
Germany lies in Central Europe between 47"16¹15? and 55"05¹33? northern latitude and 5"52¹01? and 15"02¹37? eastern length. The north south expansion is enough from cunning on Sylt (Schleswig-Holstein) to Colonel village (Bavaria) and amounts to 876 km; the west east expansion between the municipality Selfkant (North-Rhine/Westphalia) and Deschka (Saxonia) amounts to 640 km. In the following the states and seas bordering on Germany are specified in the clockwise direction. The border length (altogether 3,757 km long) is indicated behind the respective states in parentheses. In the north Germany borders on Denmark (67 km), in the northeast on Poland (442 km), in the east on Tschechien (811 km), in the southeast on Austria (815; without border in the Bodensee), in the south to Switzerland (316 km; with borders of the Exklave Buesingen, but without border in the Bodensee), in the southwest at France (448 km), in the west at Luxembourg (135 km) and Belgium (156 km) and in the northwest to the Netherlands (567 km). While in the northwest the coasts of the North Sea form and in the northeast the Baltic Sea the natural state borders, Germany in the south has portion of the alps.  
The composition and quality of the soils are regionally very different. In Northern Germany an offshore belt from fruitful march soils forms the basis for productive agriculture, while exhibits behind it, ice-age coined/shaped Geest the only very lean soils. In the Lueneburger heath this degenerated by century for a long time pastoral industry to the Podsol, so that agriculture is hardly possible. Very unproductivy are also the areas of the old and young morainic landscape, in which flight and angelagert itself. Brandenburg for example was already in historical time notorious as the "holy realm strewing sand can". Between the morainic landscape and the central mountain stage a set of boerden pulls itself from west to east: In these areas from ice-age release deposits extremely fruitful soil resulted. This consists mostly of brown ground connection, in the east partly also of black ground connection and is intensivst agriculturally used. In the low mountain ranges lean soils prevail forwards, which are agriculturally only extensively managed. The by far largest surface is wooded. Productive soils are in South Germany in particular along the rivers Rhine, Main and Danube. Altogether 53.5 % of the German surface are used agriculturally, forests cover further 29.5 %. due to high population density and mobility make the settlement and traffic surface proud 12.3 % out (tendency further rising). Water surfaces come on 1,8 %, the remaining 2.4 % distribute themselves on other surfaces, mostly wasteland.  
In the Federal Republic of Germany inhabitants live on the surface of 357.026 kmĀ² over 80 millions. The country belongs thereby to the most closely settled surface states of the world. About 75 millions. (91 %) are German citizens. From these have again 7 millions a migration background, i.e., they are "in the country born or since long time former foreigners living in Germany, who were in-patriated since the change of the nationality right to own request, or" "evacuees" and/or. "late repatriates" of German nationality, from whom most immigrated from states of the former Soviet Union (51 %, colloquially usually called "Russian-Germans") and from Poland (34 %). Between 1950 and 2002 were this altogether 4.3 millions humans. The 9 % of the population with other nationality (approx. 7 millions.) consist of different nationalities. About 2.4 millions are Turkish citizens, the remaining scarcely 4.3 millions are mainly European Union citizen (2.1 millions), to a large extent from Italy (0.5 millions), Greece (0.3 millions), Poland (0.3 millions.) and Austria (0.2 millions). The portion of the European citizens from non--European Union countries (3.2 millions.) has itself by migration from the states of the former Soviet Union and from former Yugoslavia (1.0 millions; among other things by war refugees) into the 1990er years increases. The number of the entire Polish Diaspora in Germany amounts to well over 2 millions, whereby most of them integrated themselves for a long time in the local population. Thus a total portion of the population with migration background of approximately 15 % results; a reference to it that the ethnical composition of the population changed on the one hand, this however on the other hand no more over nationalities to be seized cannot. A certain measure of immigration is wished by political side regarding the decrease of the geburtenzahl and the negative demographic development following from it, in order not to endanger the social security of the population. The five largest cities are (conditions 31 March 2005): 1. Berlin with 3.391.407 inhabitants 2. Hamburg with 1.736.752 inhabitants 3. Munich with 1.397.537 inhabitants 4. Cologne with 975.907 inhabitants 5. Frankfurt/Main with 657.126 inhabitants.  
The language common in Germany is German. In the supraregional media and as writing language high German is used. As language of the everyday life high-German in many regions almost exclusively one speaks (often regionally easily dyed), while in other regions beside it one of the many German dialects is used. Apart from the German language regionally also the languages for a long time in Germany of the residents minorities are recognized as official languages, like Danish, Friesisch and Sorbisch. Same applies to the of Lower Saxony (flat German), that partly as independent language, partly in addition, as down-German dialect is regarded. The number of the speakers of these groups is however comparatively small and tendentious removing. Is to be worked against to this trend by instruction in kindergarten and primary school. Other formerly spread languages such as Moselromanisch (in the 11. Century become extinct), Polabisch (in 18. Century become extinct) or Jiddisch are not today any longer spoken. Differently as in other countries the use of dialects in Germany does not apply everywhere than fault, which obstructs the social progress. Instead the dialects are seen as cultural enriching. The most well-known dialects are under other Alemannisch, Bairisch, Frankish, hessian, Swabian, Niederrheinisch, Thuringian and Saxonian and Pfaelzisch. These dialects can exhibit easy nuances from municipality to municipality. High-German as everyday life language regionally in the comparatively limited area south Lower Saxony between Hanover and Kassel is spoken. In the past decades in Germany many immigrants established themselves. They use their native language, i.e. mainly Turkish and Russian among themselves beside the German still frequently. The German language was once the traffic language of Central Europe, Eastern Europe and Scandinavia. Temporarily German was also the internationally used science language, before it was replaced from English. In Europe it is after English the most frequently informed foreign language, world-wide is it here on the third place. Within the European union German is the language with most native speakers, still before English, French, Spanish or Italian. German is most secondaryfrequently in the InterNet used the language with 8 % of all InterNet sides, after English with 50 % of all sides. A contribution for the development of the high German Martin Luther made in 16. Century with its translation of the Bible. Johann Christoph ennobling published 1781 the first large dictionary. Jacob and William Grimm began 1852 with the publication of the most comprehensive German dictionary, which was completed 1961, but one submits since that time of a revision. The German orthography became in the course 19. Century increasingly standardizes. A break-through to a German "unit posting" succeeded with the "orthographic dictionary of the German language" from Konrad Duden (1880), which was explained in the spelling reform form changed easily of 1901 in as the basis of the official orthography. Only 1996 came it to a renewed spelling reform. The foreign language taught with priority at schools is followed English, of French and afterwards of Russian. In the last years also Spanish became ever more popular. English today the first obligation foreign language is in all Lands of the Federal Republic partly already starting from the third Grundschule class, at the latest however starting from the fifth class of the resuming schools. Of it excluded is only the Saarland, where foreign language instruction can still begin with French. At some High Schools the possibility exists of occupying latin or French as the first foreign language.  
In Germany applies freedom of religion, which is embodied in the Basic Law as human right. Nevertheless the separation from church and state is not complete: In many social and school-cultural ranges entwinements, for example over church, exist but nationally working group of schools, hospitals or nursing homes along-financed. The Christian churches possess the status of office churches, it represent therefore no national institution, but a body of public right. The church tax is drawn in over the state.  
National Socialist dictatorship (1933-1945) Adolf Hitler major item: Time of the national socialism the NSDAP established a totalitarian a party state in the German Reich very fast, as first unpopular persons were removed from all national organizations. 1933 were already established in Dachau the first concentration camp, into which above all political opponents became closed. Except communists, Social Democrats and trade unionists concerned this also church representative, who opposed the official policy. A set of directives provided for complete synchronising of the public opinion in the sense of the NSDAP. Unpopular publications were drawn, for example in the public-effective book burn, from traffic and the entire art enterprise was brought on party line - unwanted works of art were explained for "degenerated". Within shortest time the party penetrated also the private life, by propaganda steered by Joseph Goebbels became pervasive and on children pressure was already exerted to step the party organizations. Personally Hitler secured itself, by letting also internal-party opponents and former way companions murder. In the fictitious Roehm roehm-Putsch it let the SA leader Roehm and a number of opponents relating to domestic affairs kill on 30 June 1934 ("night of the long measurers"), whereupon also it annoying the SA become was entmachtet. Instead it on the unconditionally resulted in SS and the realm resistance, whose generals put its loyalty oath down on it personally, set for it. For the fight of any political opposition and free expression of opinion the Gestapo was used, which had own prisons and torture cellars. From the beginning Hitler pursued two goals: a war of extermination and attack for the creation of new "habitat in the east" and the pursuit of the Jews, who began with discrimination, humiliating and Ausgrenzung and later in according to plan Genozid put on and the largest of all times, to which Holocaust ended. After Hitler of the Gefolgschaft of the military had insured itself, the adjustment of the economy already began on a forthcoming war at 1934: The defence expenditure was driven within shortest time on enormous sums. Work programmes, one disinhibits expansive monetary policy and debt economy were the politico-economic instruments for this. Unemployment sinking thereby was welcomed by the population and taken up as redemption of economic promises. The fate of the Jews worsened continuously: 1935 was discharged the Nuernberger of rassengesetze, which branded and heavily punished personal relations between "Ariern" and Jews as "race dishonor". Jews lost first all public offices, were pursued arbitrarily, bestohlen and extorted and finally with a complete professional disqualification occupied. The "Arisierung" expropriated on a large scale all Jewish enterprises. Ever more frequently now also Jews were instructed in concentration camps. Many seized the resolution for emigration, most however remained in Germany, because they felt as Germans and did not want to leave their homeland. The racistic world view of the national socialists and their efforts for breeding a "gentleman race" concerned also different subpopulations: Sinti and Roma, Poland, Russian, Homosexuelle and obstructed became likewise victims of repression, force and murder. Meanwhile the regime celebrated some propaganda successes. 1935 were integrated the Saarland. 1936 pulled the National Socialist German Reich with the adjustment of the olympic plays international interest and partial unrestrained admiration on itself. In the same year the demilitarized Rhine country was again occupied. The aggressive expansion beyond the German borders began with the connection of Austria in the year 1938, which was operated under the rejoicing of large parts of the population, whereupon Germany was called "largeGerman realm". In the same year Hitler in the resident of Munich agreement reached the Annexion of the Sudetenlandes settled by Germans. Only as the Germans into March 1939 also into the remaining Tschechien and as "protectorate Boehmen and Maehren" the realm area marched slammed shut, recognized the other States of the error, which they had committed with their appeasement politics (see Appeasement). 1.9.1939: Soldiers of the German armed forces exceed the border to Poland as Germany finally on 1 September 1939 Poland attacked, were exhausted the patience of the allied ones. Great Britain and France explained the war to Germany. The Second World War demanded 55 million dead ones in six years. With a series of tactical successes, which entered as blitzkrieg history, Germany first important military successes arrives. Poland was divided in the nonaggression treaty between Hitler and Stalin, the armed forces threw afterwards its armies to the west, attacked the neutral States of Belgium and the Netherlands and occupied within six weeks France. At this time Hitler's popularity in the people reached its High point and the German Reich extended now from the Elsass until Krakau. With beginning of war also the fate of the Jews and the other pursued minorities was sealed. The departure was forbidden, the Jews were gepfercht and forced in close Ghettos to carry a Jew star. With insufficient food supply and constantly breaking out epidemics they had to perform hard labour in the wartime economy. Many of them died at weakening, hunger or abusing. 1942 were decided to the when sea-conference the complete destruction of the Jews, whereupon the SS organized the Holocaust industrially. Particularly in occupied Poland (Generalgovernement)errichtete it enormous extermination camps, in which most victims, in cattle railroad cars herangekarrt, immediately guest became. However in Auschwitz Birkenau the Schergen murdered humans in this kind over one million. Altogether the number of the murdered ones amounts to estimated six million. In the meantime Hitler had explained also the war to the Soviet Union (? Russia campaign 1941-1945). In June 1941 the army marched apparently inexorably on Moscow before and in December was only stopped. After war-allied Japan in the same month the American navy had attacked in Pearl Harbor, Germany explained also the war to the USA. Resources lacking and the supremacy of the opponent let the war turn occur already soon. As a crucial time generally embitters led and lost battle around Stalingrad stated, those in complete reaming of the German 6. Army ended. The more inevitably the defeat was inward led, the harder the policy. Goebbels proclaimed the "total war" in the citizen of Berlin sport palace 1943. Entire production was only aligned now to the war, while the German armies at all fronts back-yielded and under the bombardment of the allied ones nearly all larger German cities sank in debris and ash. Only as the Soviet armies Berlin had already taken, took themselves Hitler on 30 April 1945 in its leader shelter the life. The German unconditional surrender followed on 8 May. The survivors political and military chief executives were condemned later in the Nuernberger processes. [ work on ] crew (1945-1949) allied the four zones of occupation in accordance with the Potsdamer agreement (i.e. already without the east areas) major items placed from the Soviet Union under Polish administration: Germany 1945-1949 allied winner powers, first the USA, the Soviet Union and Great Britain, later also France, strove at the beginning of still around common crew politics. United one was itself over a Demilitarisierung and the Entnazifizierung in such a way specified. But with the question, which one had to understand by a democracy, first diversities of opinion between the Soviet Union already showed up on the one hand (see People's Republic) and the Western powers on the other hand. On operation Stalins, which east Poland annektiert and which had slammed Soviet Union shut, large parts of the German east became as reconciliation under Polish administration posed. Thus fell Pommern, Schlesien and the southern East Prussia at Poland, the northern East Prussia as area Kaliningrad to the Soviet Union - a procedure, which was only approved of by the Western powers to the conference of potsdam against-striving. Most German inhabitants in the new sphere of influence of the USSR became from Poland, which CSSR drove, etc. out, just as the Polish population from the Polish east areas. In the central area of the defeated German one of Reich the Federal Republic of Germany (FRG - unofficial, politically contentious abbreviation) and the German Democratic Republic (GDR) developed - whereby the Federal Republic in accordance with a constitutional court judgement according to international law as "identically" to the German Reich regarded itself. The Republic of Austria was restored - apart from the final loss of South Tyrol - within the earlier borders. The fixing of the boundaries of the Lands of the Federal Republic in the Federal Republic of Germany partial determined by the borders of the zones of occupation, e.g. between Lower Saxony and Mecklenburg and/or Saxonia-Anhalt as well as between Thuringia and Hessen. [ work on ] division and reunification (1949-1990) the citizens of Berlin wall at the Bethaniendamm the Federal Republic of Germany were created on 23 May 1949 in the three western zones of occupation. On this day the Basic Law was put as interim solution for a condition into effect. The Basic Law contained the entire German people in the preamble "(?) remains requested to complete in free self-determination the unit and liberty of Germany" a "reunification requirement", to which up to the actual reunification 1990 one held. The establishment of the GDR took place on 7 October 1949 in the Soviet zone of occupation. The cold war between west and east separated the states oriented west of the communist controlled. Those increasingly impenetrable border attachments formed so designated iron curtain for one of Churchill, pulled themselves crosswise by Central Europe and divided Germany. With the building of the citizens of Berlin wall 1961 also West Berlin was blocked as last gate to the refuge to the west. While in the GDR a planned economy was established after stalinistischem sample, the Federal Republic decided for the social free-market economy. The using wirtschaftswunder led to continuously high growth rates, full employment and prosperity in the context of an economic policy, which was steered under first chancellor Konrad Adenauer considerably of its ministers of economics Ludwig Erhard, who followed it 1963 in the chancellorship. The most important milestones with regard to foreign policy of this era were the west integration - 1955 stepped West Germany of NATO - and the participation in the economic union in Europe, which received a crucial thrust by the Roman contracts 1957. The GDR, in which also after a rising of the people on 17 June 1953 the stalinistische policy of the SED was resumed, integrated itself against it increasingly into the Eastern European systems Warsaw Pact and the RGW. Only in the sixties the Germans concerned themselves again more intensively with the processing of the National Socialist dictatorship. At the same time some political affairs and arising libertaerer ideas led in particular the students to the call after a profound social change. 1967 an using economic crisis and substantial student unrests 1968 strengthened the impression of a political state of emergency. A number of fundamental law changes (emergency acts) discharged the 1966 formed large coalition from CDU and SPD and tried to adapt with the help of the global control to the economically more difficult times. With the start of the social liberals government under Willy Brandt a number of social, social and reforms with regard to foreign policy were converted. The east politics, which on communication with Warsaw Pact set, led to relaxation with regard to foreign policy - which culminated to German-German approximation in the case of knee of Warsaw - and Brandt 1972 the Nobel peace prize brought in, became however criticized by conservative ones partly sharply. The oil crisis 1973, which coincided with inflationary tendencies due to high collective wage agreements, let the government come into the crisis. Brandt withdrew after uncovering an espionage affair around its advisor Guenter Guillaume. His successor Helmut Schmidt had with rising indebtedness and unemployment to fight to several economic crises and the terror of the RAF. When with the Germans estimated, he however the support of its parliamentary group, which opposes increasingly against its support of the NATO double resolution, lost chancellors and person. At the breakup apart to the coalition 1982 Helmut Kohl succeeded over a constructional vote of no confidence the choice at the chancellor. It governed longer as everything its predecessors and is considered than chancellor of the German unit. This was made possible by the changed political world situation and the changes in the Soviet Union (Glasnost, Perestroika) and advanced considerably by the mass demonstrations in the GDR, which finally forced the opening of the borders on 9 November. After the first free elections to the people chamber in March 1990, which won Kohl CDU, the way was free for the official German-German combination, which took place in agreement with the allied representatives in the context of the "two-plus four-discussions". [ work on ] from the Bonn one to citizen of Berlin the Republic of (1990-Gegenwart) on 3 October 1990 took place the entry of the GDR to the Federal Republic of Germany. The troops of former crew powers did not leave to a large extent the country, the military units of former crew powers still remained have any sovereignty powers more and to be subject the NATO troop statute. The new and/or. "increased" Federal Republic of Germany attained thereby for the first time since the end of the Second World War its full national sovereignty. In the framework Germany committed itself to the reunification to the disarmament on in the future maximally 370,000 soldiers. Territorially the Federal Republic recognized the or ice SE line in November 1990 finally as according to international law obligatory border to Poland on (disputed, s. to the noncommittal convention: Or ice SE line). Later (January 1997) declarations followed for reconciliation with the Czech republic. With limited majority (338 to 320 voices) the Bundestag decided on 20 June 1991 to give the interim solution up Bonn as Federal Capital and to shift government and parliament to Berlin. The new seat of the German Bundestag is the realm tag building in Berlin, on 19 April 1999 a meeting found first in which instead of. Since September 1999 the Federal Government is finally settled in Berlin. The 1990er years was coined/shaped after the short boom of the reunification by economical stagnation, mass unemployment and reform rope, why the government Kohl was voted out 1998. In particular the imminent comprehensive economic recovery in East Germany, promised by Kohl, was missing. For the first time in postwar history it came with the government participation of alliance 90/die the Green in the coalition with the SPD under guidance of Gerhard Schroeder as a Federal Chancellor to a fundamental change of government in the sense of a direction change, in which none of the parties governing in the preceding legislative period was more involved. This Red-Green coalition was confirmed with the elections to the Bundestag 2002. The federal politics to the turn of the century in 21. Century was coined/shaped by a reform politics. Red-green set fundamental changes in the social -, pension and public health policy (see agenda 2010) through. It actually succeeded to keep the ancillary wages stable. With the goal, the social supply in the increasingly expensive utility system for all upright to received, private auxiliary supplying solutions were publicised (for example Riester pension). New concepts, like auxiliary payments of the patients during the attendance of patients, the spend-intensive health insurance companies should relieve, were however not not popular. The topic ecology stronger weighted, e.g. with the introduction of the disputed eco-tax on the gasoline price, the beginning of the door from the atomic energy or legislative initiatives to the reduction of greenhouse gases. With the so-called globalization causes, increased into the 1990er years, strengthened the debate around the ancillary wages, since above all larger enterprises shifted a part of their production into so-called cheap wage countries, among other things, in order to remain competitive in the international competition by already the opening of the world market. Thus it remained with the phenomenon mass work unemployment, although it was one of the principal purposes of the red-green government to stop the negative trend on the job market. With regard to foreign policy Germany excited 2003 attention during the Iraq war in the year, in which Germany did not take part with war employments. This led to conflicts particularly with the USA, but to high sympathy stating of the German population for Schroeder, which was characterized as a peace chancellor. With strong circulations the containing Hartz iv-legislation of 2004, which had the goal of animating the job market as the pressure rose to the unemployed persons, grew the protests against one - of in particular by direct the concerning - as socially in an unfair way felt government politics, which were not expected in this form by many citizens by the SPD. After by red-green lost elections of the federal parliament in the years 2004 and 2005 Federal Chancellor Schroeder finally asked the question of confidence on 1 July 2005 in the Bundestag according to kind. 68 GG with the goal of losing these consciously. Thereupon Federal President Horst loosened charcoal burner (CDU) the 15. German Bundestag up and set new elections for 18 September 2005. Since this choice did not result in result in favor of a political camp and all attempts failed to educate a three-party government, CDU/CSU and SPD agreed on coalition negotiations on a large coalition under the chancellor shank of Angela Merkel (CDU).  
Capital and seat of the government of the Federal Republic of Germany are Berlin. According to the article 20 GG the Federal Republic of Germany is a democratic, social and right-national Federal State. There are 16 part parts of Lands of the Federal Republic, by which some again into governmental districts subdivided are. The national order regulates the Basic Law. Head of state is the Federal President with representative tasks. Protokollarisch seen follow it the president of the German federal daily, the Federal Chancellor and the Upper House of Parliament president officiating in each case, who represent the Federal President in accordance with the Basic Law. The head of the government Deutschlands is the Federal Chancellor. It possesses the guideline authority for the policy of the Federal Government (chancellor democracy). As Federal State Germany is organized foederal, i.e. there are two levels in the political system: the federal level, which represents the total state Germany outward, and which regional level, which exists individually in each Land of the Federal Republic. Each level possesses own state organs of the executive (implementing force), legislation (legislative force) and Judikative (quite-speaking force). See also: Division of power Bundestag and Bundesrat decide together on the laws of the federation and have the power with zweidrittelmehrheit in both organs the Basic Law, the condition of Germany to change. In the Lands of the Federal Republic the land parliaments decide on the laws of their country. Although the delegates of the parliaments are not instruction-bound after the Basic Law, preliminary decisions in the parties dominate the legislation. The executive is formed on federal level by the Federal Government, that is led by the Federal Chancellor. On the level of the Lands of the Federal Republic the Prime Minister (and/or the mayors of the city states) leads the executive. The administrations of the federation and the countries are led by the specialized Ministers, them stand in each case at the point of the authorities. As also in other countries, federations in the political system play an important role. With their lobbying they try to move the policy in the direction of their interests. The Sinnhaftigkeit of these activities is not undisputed and is subject to frequent criticism by the lobbying negatively in each case the concerned of other federations in particular. The Federal Constitutional Court in Karlsruhe is awake over the adherence to the Basic Law. The highest Courts of Justice of the federation are the Federal High Court with head office in Karlsruhe, the Federal Administrative Court in Leipzig, the Federal Labor Court in Erfurt, the Federal Social Court in Kassel and the Federal Finance Court in Munich. The majority of the iurisdiction lies in the responsibility of the Lands of the Federal Republic. The Federal courts are nearly in each case appeal instance and examine the decisions of the national courts for formal and material legal standard.  
Juridical system 
The like a Christian democratic union of Germany (CDU) was created 1945 as an interdenominational follow-up party more civil and religiously coined/shaped parties. In it above all forces from the central party united. It is conservatively coined/shaped. With the exception Bayerns is represented the CDU in the entire federal territory. The like a Christian social union (CSU) has a similar conservative adjustment, works however only in Bavaria. Both parties in the German Bundestag together form a parliamentary group community, together them "the union" or for "Union parties" are also called. The social-democratic party of Germany (SPD) existed including their forerunner organizations since 1863 and is thereby the oldest German party. It justified the tradition of the social-democracy. After prohibition in the time of the national socialism it was again-created 1945. She understands herself since 1959 also officially no longer only than labour party, but than a people's party, which wants to be selectable for broad layers. Their confession reads "liberty, justice and solidarity". The free democratic party (FDP) was created 1948 and creates its self understanding in the tradition of the German liberalism, which stands in particular in economic questi0ns in addition, in citizen legal questions for more rights and responsibilities of the particular. The Greens developed as a country wide party 1979/80 from the then new social movements, for example the modern women's movement, the peace and for the ecology movement of the 1970er years. they drew 1983 for the first time into the Bundestag. 1990 united it with the East German citizen movement alliance 90 to alliance 90/Die the Greens. The party of democratic socialism (Party of Democratic Socialism) was alone dominant SED and in its popularity limited to East Germany the right successor in the GDR. 2005 were based from protest against the reform politics of the red-green Federal Government the choice alternative work and social justice (WASG) and opened the Party of Democratic Socialism for the election to the Bundestag 2005 their lists for WASG members. For this reason the Party of Democratic Socialism renamed itself in the meantime into the left wing party. Both parties aim at a combination. Right-wing extremists parties were, apart from the German realm Reich in the first Bundestag (1949-1953), never in the German Bundestag to represent, could however on regional level occasionally into parliaments draw in. They experienced a relative bloom time end of the 1960er and since the reunification. Parties of this direction are the republicans, the German people union (DVU) and the nationaldemocratic party of Germany (NPD). There are numerous regional parties and "splinter parties", whose political influence on federal level is limited to except-parliamentary activities usually however by the check clause of the 5%-Huerde. The special arrangement to draw over direct mandates into the Bundestag is just as nearly impossible for these. In the federal state parliament of Schleswig-Holstein however the Suedschleswig voter federation is legally guaranteed represented due to a special arrangement for the Danish minority. In the history of the Federal Republic there were several party prohibitions, against the right-wing extremist SRP 1952 and against the communist party of Germany (KPD) 1956. A prohibition request against the NPD failed 2004 among other things because of failure of the federal office for protection of the constitution. - more or less independently - youth organizations stand for almost all influential parties to the side. The most important are the boy union (CDU/CSU), the jusos (SPD), the boy liberal (FDP), the Green youth (alliance 90/Die the Green) as well as ' solvently (the left wing party).  
Germany is relatively lacking in raw materials, its economics is predominantly concentrated on the industriellen and service sector. Large surfaces of the country are agriculturally used, however only 2-3 % of the persons employed are active in the agriculture. Germany is with a gross domestic product of approx.. 2,2 trillion euro (conditions: 2004) the third biggest national economy and industrial nation of the world. Besides Germany is the world largest export nation. With the standard of living Germany is appropriate for Human development index according to that on place 19 in the world. In the European Union Germany takes inhabitant rank 11 after the GROS DOMESTIC PRODUCT for each. According to in September 2005 the updated prosperity index of the World Bank Germany is measured inhabitants at the prosperity for each to Switzerland, Denmark, Sweden and the USA the fifth-richest country in the world. At present of Germany is economics characterized by unemployment, in particular in East Germany, unusually high for Germany, and relatively low economic growth rates (2003: -0,1 %, 2004: 1,6 %), which are to due predominantly to stagnating being nominal oh question. In the foreign trade Germany is very successful against it (exports 2000-2004: +49 %). unemployment rises for the 1970er years from economic cycles to economic cycles continuously. The search for the cause of this restaurant economics splits at present the society: Trade associations and neoliberale economists see the welfare state developed traditionally fully in Germany as causers of the economic crisis, since the small labour costs in Eastern European neighbour states tempt to the misalignment of production, although also countries with a developed welfare state and a high state ratio exhibit high restaurant dynamics (Sweden, Finland, Norway, Austria). As a cause it is considered also that the public expenditures are financed to a large part over social security contributions, to finance the jobs raises the price of instead of the state more strongly over job-independent taxes. Trade unions and globalization critics argue with keynesianistischen models and state that the being nominal oh question is weakened by shortening in the social sphere. Besides a sufficient economic basis for the politically motivated adjustment of East German wages was missing to the west level after the reunification. As world-wide most competitive industries those are considered to the German industry to automobile -, electrotechnical, mechanical engineering and chemical industry.