- National name
- Iran lies in Asia and has a surface of 1.648.000 qkm. Since earliest time the country was called of its population Iran. The old-Iranian form of this name, Aryanam, means country of the Arier. In the evening country to in 20. Century common designation Persia decreases/goes back to the time of the Achaemeniden, in 6. Century v. Chr. a first Persian large realm created. Its central area was the landscape Persis, the today's province Fars so mentioned by the Greeks around Schiraz. From it also the name is derived Farsi for the Persian language. The geographical term Iran refers to the entire Iranian high country, over the State of Iran outside thus also to regions of neighboring countries
- Iran borders on the Iraq (boundary line 1,458 km), Turkey and Azerbaijan (ever approx.. 500 km), Armenia (35 km), the Kaspi sea (500 km), Turkmenistan (approx. 1,000 km), Afghanistan (936 km) and Pakistan (province Belutschistan, 909 km). The highest mountain of Iran is northern of the 5,610 m high, extinct volcano Damavand (Demawend) in the Elbursgebirge, the capital Teheran. In the south and southwest the country a long coast has 2,000 km to the gulf of Oman and/or Persian Gulf, the two seas is separate by the road from Hormuz (united Arab emirates, Oman). Due to the geophysical conditions relatively frequently earthquakes arise in Iran.
- 53 % of Iran are desert area (to Kavir in the north, Lut in the south, see deserts of Afghanistan and Iran), 27 % pastureland, 9 % field (well 1/3 watered), 11 % forest. The forests are over-used mostly, between Elburs mountains and Kaspi sea are however wide jungles of the beech, which kept in this expansion only in the extreme east of the beech area.
- The population of Iran (69 million - conditions July 2004) sits down together out approx.. 51 % Persern, approx.. 24 % Aserbaidschanern, approx.. 7 % Kurd, 8 % Gilaki and Mazandarani, approx.. 3 % Arab, 2 % Turkomanen, 2 % Luren and 2 % Belut and unites smaller minorities, like Christian Armenians, Assyrer and Georgier. Altogether 95 % of the population profess themselves to the Islam; 89 % of it are Shiites and 6 % Sunniten. Besides numerous refugees live in Iran: 2 million from Afghanistan and 203,000 from the Iraq. 20,000 Iranians are as refugees in the neighbouring Iraq. Among the largest cities rank Teheran (7.1 millions), Mashhad (2.3 millions), Isfahan (1.5 millions), Karaj (1.4 millions), Taebris (1.4 millions), Schiraz (1.2 millions), Qom (1.0 millions), Ahwas (850.000) and Kermanschah (770.000).
- Office language of Iran is newPersian, locally also Farsi mentioned. It is a indogermanische language and at the same time the most important one under all Iranian languages, which form the Ostindogermani language branch together with the Indian languages. Persian is in the development of its grammar, speak in the simplification, even still further progressed as the English. Persian is the only office language of Iran, which is spoken for instance of 58 % of the Iranian population, it is however not the exclusive national language. The portion of the Azerbaijani -, and Turkmenisch speakers is numbered with 26 %; Kurdish with 9 %; Lurisch with 2 %; and others, under it Arab speakers, with 1 %."Iranian languages: Persian (Dari), Lori, Kurdish, Belutschi, Tajik "Turksprachen: Azerbaijani, Turkmenisch.
- Der schiitisch/safawidische Islam ist Staatsreligion. Knapp 95 % der Bev�lkerung sind Muslime (89 % Shiiten, 5 % Sunniten und 1 % andere muslimische Gruppen, vorwiegend Kharidschiten und Sufis). Daneben gibt es orientalische Christen (1.500.000), Anh�nger der armenisch-apostolischen Kirche (500.000), assyrische Christen (500.000), syrische Christen (300.000), Kopten (100.000), andere Christen (100.000), Juden (150.000), Parsen (480.000), Mand�er (218.000), Jesiden (55.000), Sikhs (20.000), Drusen (82.000) und ca. 300.000 der im Iran als ketzerisch bezeichneten Baha'i, deren nach dem Islam entstandene Buchreligion im Iran nicht als solche anerkannt wird, was teils blutige Pogrome und Hinrichtungen zur Folge hat.
- The today's State of Iran (Iran means in the westIranian dialects as much as country of the Arier; the eastIranian equivalent in addition is Aryana) is in the area, which one called in the German linguistic usage for a long time Persia. The geographical situation between the Caucasus in the north, the Arab peninsula in the south, India and China in the east and Mesopotamien and Syria in the west let the country become the scene of an eventful history. In the Persian region history of the realm of the Meder leads to the Perserreich of the Achaemeniden (Kyros II. the large one to Dareios III.) over Alexander the large one to the Parthern and Sassaniden. Since the Middle Ages followed after the Islamic Kalifat, which destroyed the Sassanidenreich (see Islamic expansion), different native-Persian, Mongolian and Turkish dynasties up to the Safawiden, Kadscharen and the today's State of Iran. Iran occurred as monarchy with a Schah as head and soon also with its own, free government the modern times. With Reza Schah Pahlavi (Reza Chan) began 1921 under the influence from Great Britain a political re-orientation of Persia toward the west. The contact between rulers and people decreased ever more. The discontent in the country rose. Rage concentrated first on Great Britain a purpose alliance with Germany and the erstarkte self understanding of the again-arranged state arranged the Schah to request the international community of states to designate Iran called on the part of the British persistent as "Persia" IRAN; the national name, under which it the Persern for centuries a term was. By the wealth linked with the oil Iran developed to regional power. To the Second World War it came 1951, under the government Mohammed Mossadeghs, to a nationalization of the oil industry. Trip was the British BP, which controlled the oil business in Iran and which refused itself in negotiations strictly dividing their profits from the oil business haelftig with the Iranian state. In the consequence it came in front to the international boycott of the Iranian oil, everything by the USA and Great Britain, which led in the further process to an economic crisis and to the state deficit. Despite these results the parliament selected later in democratic choice Mossadegh to the president of the country. The 1941, originally against the will of the USA, as successors of his father in the office Schah come, Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, the son Reza Schahs, placed themselves with support of the USA against Mossadegh and expressed themselves for a trade agreement with the USA. In this oil-promote-right should be transferred to US-American enterprises and be awarded to Iran 50 % of the profit from the oil business (with the British BP were approx.. 5 %). Mossadegh refused, since it wanted to keep with the oil connected the wealth Iran in the country. It came to unrests and tensions between Shah and Mossadegh. The latter had to leave however large support in the people, which arranged the Schah, on the high point of the crisis in August 1953 the country. Organized nevertheless monarchistic forces under guidance of the general (ith R.) Fazlollah Zahedi a coup d'etat (militarily supports from the USA) and got the Schah again back to power. The government at that time, with Zahedi as an Prime Minister, locked new contracts with the USA. These continued up to the first oil crisis, caused by clear price increases of Iran. Schah Mohammad Reza Pahlavi (1941-1979) introduced the "white revolution", lost however in the future of its rule increasingly the contact to the people. At the beginning of of 1979 it had to finally leave Iran due to an Islamic revolution. The Shiite leader Ruhollah Chomeini returned from the French exile, was established as the highest Autoritaeaet of the state and transformed the Empire of Iran and/or Persia (official designations of the country until 1979) into an Islamic republic. Its politics were coined/shaped by a fundamentalist, strongly anti-western line. From 1980 to 1988 the country was in a war (the first Gulf War), after the Iraq had attacked the country. The continuous international isolation of Iran loosened only to end of the 1990er. Since 2005 Iran as well as India is, Pakistan and Mongolia observer with the Shanghai Cooperation Organization (SCO).
- Since the revolution of 1979 the highest lawyer ("revolution leader") is either the Rahbar (ith e. leader) or in its absence an advice of religious office-holders. The revolution leader, since 1989 Seyyed Ali Chamene'i, has unrestricted power and appoints the highest judges (all prediger) and is also Commander-in-Chief of the armed forces. He is selected by the expert advice on lifetime. This is selected again every eight years by the people, whereby the guard advice must approve the candidates. The head of state and a head of the government of Iran is the president (since 2005 Mahmud Ahmadinedschad). It is determined in general elections for a 4-jaehrige term of office and is at the same time a head of the government. The president appoints the members of the cabinet and also manages this. It coordinates the government work and submits to the parliament the government bills. The power of president, government and parliament is however strongly limited, because all candidates who can be selected and all laws must be confirmed by the guard advice. Besides the last word of the revolution leaders has in all questions. The guard advice consists religious clergyman and 6 lay of 6 jurisprudence-learns. The clergymen are appointed by the revolution leader. Their task is it, to examine each law for its conformity with the Islamic principles. The lawyers are appointed by the highest judge, the boss of the Judikative. Their task is it to examine the condition conformity of legislativer document. The highest judge for his part is appointed by the revolution leader. The guard advice is authorized to reject or explain afterwards for invalid each law to refuse and to candidates the participation in the choice for the parliament and the office for president. The guard advice decides by simple majority. With same being correct portions the revolution leader has the final say. In the Iranian condition article � 57 becomes the national force, legislation, executive and Judikative, which subordinate religious guidance (welayat e faghi). All three Gewalten depend thus not autonomously in their decisions, but on the religious leader "Rahbar". The Iranian a chamber parliament (Islamic consultative council; Persian Majles e-Shura ye-Eslami) consists of 290 delegates, who are selected in general, direct and secret elections for a 4-jaehrige term of office. Because of the selection of the guard advice the parliament (except of 2000-2003) is dominated by the Islamic-conservative forces. With the surprising choice victory Mohammad Chatemis 1997 was established the political movement of the Reformer in the Iranian parliament. They face the religious power monopoly critically and try to strengthen the republican elements of the state. Thus it succeeded to Chatemi at the beginning of its term of office to implement a liberalisation of the national press. The system-critical voices got a public organ in order to lend to its reform will reproduction. Reviving the pressefreiheit persisted however not for a very long time. The guard advice cancels the laws with reference to incompatibility with the Islam and blocked from now on almost all reform attempts of the parliament. Since then the Reformer sees itself confronted with large confidence losses in the reform-willing subpopulations. The disappointment over the faint of the parliament led with the last local elections (2003) too much small election turnout (national cut 36 %, in Teheran 25 %) and to a clear victory of the conservative forces. With the parliamentary elections on 17 June 2005 for the time being the parliamentary end of the Reformer occurred, particularly since Chatemi was not allowed to again stand as a candidate after two terms of office. The election campaign was led on the television, in the radio, on posters and on speech meetings. Dominant which the picture of a man: Ali Akbar Haschemi Rafsandschani. The former president of Iran (1989-1997) stood as a candidate again for the post of the head of the government. From western view he was the safe choice winner, since he as a strong man of the act, when Prakmatiker applied and stood for witschaftlichen upswing, whose radiating, ungezwungen appearances oriented west schmaehlerten if necessary corruption and Kungelleivorwuerfe. But completely surprisingly (for western observers) Mahmud Ahmadinedschad in the first ballot of iranschen history won the elections. Mahmud Ahmadinedschad is considered as hard liner. In western newspapers it was called among other things "religious fascist". On its political agenda stand many points, which remind of Ruhollah Mousavi Chomeini: Islamizing the society, Kleiderodnungspflicht for Mrs., substantial cuts pressing and of the liberty of opinion, a prevention of dimplomatischen confessions in international negotiations (atomic controversy) etc.. But because of this politics it was not mainly selected. It stands also for a realistic solution of the problems, which have the simple Iranians daily. High unemployment, poverty, hunger, lack of perspectives. The solution of these problems, or at least their weakening, likewise made Mahmud Ahmadinedschad it's duty. The unemployed persons, arms, many humans without future in a country with unusually many young inhabitants, who simple people have it selected - because they regard it as one of them. Whether Mahmud Ahmadinedschad will be able to keep hopes, which are projected into him, remains to be waiting. It is safe that Iran experienced a heavy setback in things democratization and liberalisation of the society and the state system.
- Juridical system
- The Islamic right, the Scharia was again introduced by the Islamic revolution as law. Since the Scharia was never successfully codified, the justice and development are incumbent on the Islamic jurisprudence in a kind Case Law system. From a point of view of the division of power out the activity of the first highest judge affected itself after the revolution Chalkali catastrophically. Until today it gives no division of power in Iran, the highest of religious to leaders has extensive powers.
- Iran is an important oil and natural gas promoting country. Iran exports each day 3.96 million barrel = 630 millions litre (1 barrel = 159 litres) oil over 85 % of the export or approximately 19 billion euro been allotted to hydrocarbons. Important restaurant sections are also the agriculture, which constitutes 10 % of the surface despite many mountains and deserts (to the half artificial irrigation), datteln, carpets, caviar and textile industry. The import amounts to approximately 11 billion euro (above all machines and vehicles, industrie and chemistry products).
|Iran lies in Asia and has a surface of 1.648.000 qkm.
in the north borders on Armenia, Azerbaijan, Turkmenistan and the Kaspi sea, in the south on Persian Gulf and the gulf of Oman in the east on Afghanistan and Pakistan, and in the west on the Iraq and Turkey.
Iran is taken essentially by a high country, with heights around 1,220 m, that by mountains circumscribed wird.Im the north, parallel to the coastal low country at the Kaspi sea, runs the Elbursgebirge. In the west and southwest the Zagrosgebirge extends.
The narrow suedkaspischen coastal low country are fruitful.
Two large deserts extend over a large part middle Iran. The Dasht i Lût consists the Dasht i Kavír primarily made of sand and stones and of salt. Both deserts are practically uninhabited. In the winter and in spring small rivers flow into the Dasht i Kavír and form small seas and sumps. In the remaining seasons both deserts are extreme drying.
The capital is Tehran with more than 12 millions inhabitants.
|Name||Islamic Republic of Iran|
|System of government||Islamic praesidiale republic|
|Currency||1 Rial (IR)|
The sluggish privatisation of the economy, the rampantly growing bureaucracy
and the deficit eras of state enterprises, make for Iran to create.
A foreign investment law for the protection was rejected in the middle of 2001 by the guard advice, so that foreign assistance is missing for the change of the economy also in the future.
|Gross domestic product (BIP)||73,3 Mrd. US$|
|Growth rate||3,6 %|
|Portion of the BIP||Agriculture 21 %, industry 31 %, services 48 %|
|Commercial balance sheet||6,22 Mrd. us$|
|Export||19,73 Mrd. us$|
|82,5 % oil and gas, 7.5 % agrarian and traditional products such as carpets, Nuesse, Pistazien, skins, leather, caviar, metallerze, cement, textiles|
|Main export countriesr||Great Britain (16.8 %), Japan (15.7 %), Italy (8.6 %) South Korea, France, VR China, Greece, Germany, Spain|
|Import||13,51 Mrd. US$|
|44,3 % machines and means of transport, 17.6 % industr. Vorprodukte (half of it iron and steel), 12.4 % chemistry and medicines. Military equipment, metal products, food, technical services, oil finished products|
|Main supplier countries||Germany (11.6 %), Italy (8.3 %), Japan (7 %). South Korea, Italy, Japan, Dubai|
|Crude oil, petrochemie, textiles, means of transport, cement, food processing|
|Crude oil, natural gas, coal, chrome, copper, iron ore, lead, magnesite, gypsum, zinc, barytes, salt, aluminum|
|Effective area||11,6 %, by the cultivated area water 39.8 %. to be produced mainly fresh fruit, grain, sugar beets and zuckerrohr|
|importantly||Sheep -, cattle and poultry breeding as well as the fishery (caviar).|
|Wooded||about 73,000 km2, no Rodung|
The population consists of different peoples, the largest portion
has the Perser.
Iran has a very recent population, 36% is young under 15 years.
|Total population||63,9 Mio.|
|51 % Perser, 24 % Aserbaidschaner, 8 % Masandaraner, 7 % Kurd, 3 % Arab; Minorities of Turkmenen, Luren and Belut.|
|Refugees||Afghans 1.868 millions, and Iraqi 510.000.|
|Population density||38 Einwohner / km²|
|Population growth||1,66 %|
|Languages||Persian (Farsi) and Persian dialects 58 %, Turkish and Turkish dialects 26 %, Kurdish 9 %, Luri 2 %, Baloch 1 %, Arab 1 %, Turkmenisch 1 %, other one 2 %|
|Religion||Schiiti Muslims of 95 % Sunniti Muslims 4 % trailers of the Zarathustra religion, Jew, Christian and Bahai 1 %|